On her death in 1231, James exchanged the Balearic Islands for Urgell with her widower, Peter of Portugal. By a treaty with Louis IX of France, he wrested the county of Barcelona from nominal French suzerainty and integrated it into his crown. Fearless even as a youth, he fought an Aragonese noble in hand-to-hand combat, took part in the siege of the port of Castejón in 1222, and three years later tried to seize another port. James built and consecrated the Cathedral of Lleida, which was constructed in a style transitional between Romanesque and Gothic with little influence from Moorish styles..  James sent an ambassador to Abaqa in the person of Jayme Alaric de Perpignan, who returned with a Mongol embassy in 1269. He was, however, able to develop relations and promote trade with the states of North Africa; and, with a clear view of the future, he married his principal heir, Peter, to Constance of Sicily, thus making it easy for the latter kingdom to be added in later years to the crown of Aragon. , In 1221, he was married to Eleanor, daughter of Alfonso VIII of Castile and Leonora of England. The next six years of his reign were full of rebellions on the part of the nobles. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Specifically, it defined the borders of the newly created Kingdom of Valencia. James intervened on behalf of Aurembiax, whom he owed protection. Chroniclers say he used gunpowder in the siege of Museros castle. James I, byname James The Conqueror, Spanish Jaime El Conquistador, (born Feb. 2, 1208, Montpellier, County of Toulouse—died July 27, 1276, Valencia, Valencia), the most renowned of the medieval kings of Aragon (1213–76), who added the Balearic Islands and Valencia to his realm and thus initiated the Catalan-Aragonese expansion in the Mediterranean that was to reach its zenith in the last decades of the 14th century. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Premium Membership is now 50% off! She bore him numerous children: James married thirdly Teresa Gil de Vidaure, but only by a private document, and left her when she developed leprosy. https://military.wikia.org/wiki/James_I_of_Aragon?oldid=5095328, Pages using duplicate arguments in template calls. Statue of James I at the Sabatini Gardens in Madrid(J. León, 1753). A photograph of the king was taken. As in the case of Navarre, he declined to launch into perilous adventures. James I married twice.  In the end, James accepted Theobald's succession. Pope Gregory IX was required to intervene.  In 1263, James presided over a debate in Barcelona between the Jewish rabbi Nahmanides and Pablo Christiani, a prominent converso. The troubadour Olivier lo Templier composed a song praising the voyage and hoping for its success. By the Treaty of Corbeil (1258) he renounced his claims to territories in the south of France, thus abandoning the traditional policy that the Catalan dynasty had hitherto pursued across the Pyrenees. Updates? https://www.britannica.com/biography/James-I-king-of-Aragon, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute - James I "the Conqueror” King of Aragon. During his remaining two decades after Corbeil, James warred with the Moors in Murcia, on behalf of his son-in-law Alfonso X of Castile. The Worlds of Alfonso the Learned and James the Conqueror – Robert I. Burns, S.J., ed. They found that Baibars, the Mameluke Sultan of Egypt, had broken his truce with the Kingdom of Jerusalem and was making a demonstration of his military power in front of Acre. His long reign saw the expansion of the Crown of Aragon on all sides: into Valencia to the south, Languedoc to the north, and the Balearic Islands to the east. Always a chivalrous soldier, James helped his son-in-law Alfonso X of Castile to suppress the rebellion of the Moors in the Kingdom of Murcia (1266); he also set out on a crusade to the Holy Land (1269), though this was a failure. In the second division, his elder son, Peter, received Aragon, Valencia, and Catalonia, and his younger son, James, received the Balearic Islands, Roussillon, and other Pyrenean counties that he was to hold in fief from Peter. James was handed over, at Carcassonne, in May or June 1214, to the papal legate Peter of Benevento. James endeavoured to form a state straddling the Pyrenees in order to counterbalance the power of France north of the Loire. James first married, in 1221, Eleanor, daughter of Alfonso VIII of Castile and Eleanor of England. The occupation of the kingdom was completed later with the capture of other towns, and in 1244 a treaty was signed by which the boundaries of Aragon and Castile were delimited in the newly conquered areas. On balance, his reign was very beneficial. James was the son of Peter II of Aragon and Mary of Montpellier. As with the much earlier Visigothic attempt, this policy was victim to physical, cultural, and political obstacles. In 1276, the king fell very ill at Alzira and resigned his crown, intending to retire to the monastery of Poblet, but he died at Valencia on 27 July. By the Treaty of Corbeil, signed in May 1258, he ended his conflict with Louis IX of France, securing the renunciation of French claims to sovereignty over Catalonia. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1". James was then sent to Monzón, where he was entrusted to the care of Guillem de Montredón, the head of the Knights Templar in Spain and Provence; the regency meanwhile fell to his great uncle Sancho, Count of Roussillon, and his son, the king's cousin, Nuño. James I the Conqueror was King of Aragon, Count of Barcelona, and Lord of Montpellier from 1213 to 1276; King of Majorca from 1231 to 1276; and Valencia from 1238 to 1276. According to the continuator of William of Tyre, he returned via Montpellier por l'amor de sa dame Berenguiere ("for the love his lady Berengaria") and abandoned any further effort at a crusade. According to the treaty, all lands south of a line from Biar to Villajoyosa through Busot were reserved for Castile. In 1233 James began a second war of reconquest—against the Saracen rulers of the Kingdom of Valencia. Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, Full online book The Chronicle Of James I Of Aragon. Save 50% off a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content.  In consequence of the Albigensian Crusade, many troubadours were forced to flee southern France and many found refuge in Aragon. The Crusader Kingdom of Valencia – Robert Ignatius Burns, S.J. This division of realms among his heirs was not James’s only political blunder. In anger I struck the arrow so with my hand that I broke it: the blood came out down my face; I wiped it off with a mantle of "sendal" I had, and went away laughing, that the army might not take alarm..  She surrendered Lleida to James and agreed to hold Urgell in fief for him. Professor of Medieval History, University of Madrid, 1980–86. On 5 September 1229, the troops from Aragon, consisting of 155 ships, 1,500 horsemen and 15,000 soldiers, set sail from Tarragona, Salou, and Cambrils to conquer Majorca from Abú Yahya, the semi-independent Almohad governor of the island.  He also founded a studium at Valencia in 1245 and received privileges for it from Pope Innocent IV, but it did not develop as splendidly. Majorca was captured in December 1229, and the occupation was rounded off in 1235 by the conquest of Ibiza by the Bishop of Saragossa. As a child, James was a pawn in the power politics of Provence, where his father was engaged in struggles helping the Cathar heretics of Albi against the Albigensian Crusaders led by Simon IV de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, who were trying to exterminate them. Author of. The campaign lasted three long years and suffered various interruptions before the capital itself was captured in 1238. Notwithstanding his early patronage of poetry, by the influence of his confessor Ramon de Penyafort, James brought the Inquisition into his realm in 1233 to prevent any vernacular translation of the Bible..