# laws of logic pdf

<> 5 Predicate Logic - Derived Theorems Theorem 5.1 [Deﬁnition of ∃] ... 6 Some Simple Laws of Arithmetic Throughout this compendium, we assume the validity of all “simple” arith-metic rules. %%EOF 0000002367 00000 n In the Christian worldview, laws of logic are justified; that means we have a good reason or reasons to believe in them and we know they have the characteristics that they have. © BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com October 1, 2020, 9:58 pm ad1c9bdddf, Hypothetical Syllogisms - Conditional Arguments, Critical Legal Theory vs. Critical Legal Studies, Decision-Making, Ethics and Law: You are a paramedic arriving at an emergency scene. For instance, it cannot be raining and not raining at the same time. endobj b) The law of identity: everything is … ���@B�nX��l�[L !��\$��dB A#�Ј���UԪU\��%�(n�n��Z�[�j�u�E!�=�7'\�s{k{w��|�;����#0�KǇ�-.��S�e�Ù�qc�me�J��J������O�͚_rUc����S�T����y�'_1e�v�tV,^T�����KTƯ�WT�f=��z�RT�X��E�E�������5��&��oK�m�����"�݁u5z�/3v������?�|���Qu�Y5����`���3Q��д�����_�ت���rc�_���#'"�*�Oj��q��u�/E~xcsd}�������uk��>���X�3(�lj ����0c�]� -o��o�=m�=(W[����uK>��ƒ2�Z�#�.��|!������w)G��ÝL���ڞ����\$O��e��H���9�O�r㗇�g��t/��0J�gdGº��C�vY>�"�K��͠0'+bA�Rvཚ�>��@�ٰ�0!��^b�(�̔d��(z���)�^v{�����ʼ�� �k�\L�uZ��I����t�5�E��>_e���mH�D����X�݆D��'�Y��nC"%R"%R"%ҿ*)Ws�݆��������ېH��H��H��H��H��H��H��H��H��H��H��/N�8ǿFJY��l9�N. laws of logic. Worksheet 4: Laws of Logic Use the Law of Detachment to draw a conclusion. %PDF-1.4 %���� <> distributive law-are the same as in ordinary algebra. A cannot equal non A or be non A. The set di erence of A and B is the set AnB = fx : x 2A^x 62Bg. What is the difference between persuasion and manipulation? The Solution tackles the following questions: What are the 4 fundamental laws of logic? Alternate notation: A B. 2 0 obj 11 0 obj 5 0 obj <> <>stream Remember, in Boolean algebra as applied to logic circuits, addition and the OR operation are the same. 2. b) The law of identity: everything is what it is. = 2+3 = 5 x+x = 2∗x endobj endobj In logic… 8 0 obj xref Furthermore, many would maintain that the concept of God must conform to the laws Angelo, Bruno and Carlo are three students that took the Logic exam. Examples of such rules are all simpliﬁcation rules, e.g. endobj Laws of logic are the standard of correct reasoning. ��E�:�,����K�\e��V���h�#���""�ԫ�5g'H��g`�p��Y�@%P.PB�_��l�iy� M�:l./d � For instance, if the ground is wet, it must be due to fluid coming into contact with it. What this means is that a statement cannot be true and false at the same time. [ 250 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 250 0 0 0 0 0 500 0 0 0 0 0 333 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 722 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 667 0 0 0 0 0 0 556 0 722 0 1000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500 0 444 556 444 333 500 556 278 0 556 278 833 556 500 0 0 444 389 333 556 0 722 0 500] Formalize the following sentences: 12. 0000000556 00000 n %PDF-1.7 These are some of the issues this post addresses. What is the difference between inductive and deductive logic? startxref The symmetric di erence of A and B is A B = (AnB)[(B nA). <]>> 13 0 obj a) In logic deduction is inference in which a conclusion follows necessarily from one or more given premises. x��] x�չ>�}K&! The intersection of sets A and B is the set A\B = fx : x 2A^x 2Bg. 6 0 obj Rashid wants to go to the University of North Carolina. endobj 1 0 obj In the first place, any argument one might offer for the existence of God must conform to the laws of logic: the law of non-contradiction, the rules of deductive inference, and so forth. <>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI]>>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792]/Contents 15 0 R /Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> a) The law of (non-)contradiction: A cannot be A and not-A at the same time. 80 13 <> 80 0 obj <> endobj 0000001241 00000 n 0000001024 00000 n 0000002859 00000 n 0000002610 00000 n Set Operations and the Laws of Set Theory The union of sets A and B is the set A[B = fx : x 2A_x 2Bg. <> <> What is the difference between inductive and deductive logic? d) The law of sufficient reason or rational inference: there should be sufficient reason for all that happens. If a student gets an A on a final exam, then the student will pass the course. 4 0 obj What are the 4 fundamental laws of logic? WUCT121 Logic 3 In a similar way, Logic deals with statements or sentences by defining symbols and establishing ‘rules’. 0 1. endobj [ 250 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 250 0 250 0 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 722 0 667 0 0 0 722 722 333 0 0 0 889 722 0 0 0 667 556 611 722 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 444 500 444 500 444 333 500 500 278 278 500 278 778 500 500 500 0 333 389 278 500 500 722 500 500] 2.3 Propositional Formalization 1. %���� 12 0 obj Let’s consider a propositional language where A=“Aldo passed the exam”, B=“Bruno passed the exam”, C=“Carlo passed the exam”. <> 1. A is A, that is, identical with A. A=A. endobj a) The law of (non-)contradiction: A cannot be A and not-A at the same time. 2. If any statement is true, then it is true. endobj endobj Roughly speaking, in arithmetic an operation is a rule for producing new numbers from a pair of given numbers, like addition (+) or multiplication (×). What are the 4 fundamental laws of logic? The student gets an A on the final exam. 0000003692 00000 n Commutative Laws The commutative law of addition for two variables is written as A+B = B+A This law states that the order in which the variables are ORed makes no difference. Is there a difference between deductive and inductive logic? For instance, it cannot be raining and not raining at the same time. What this means is that a statement cannot be true and false at the same time. <> The Christian Worldview is the Basis for Laws of Logic. �,@��C�4RD�Vu���4WFh�����4Q���� ��F�BOwNQ�gt�"�=�ӵEp� 0000001348 00000 n 10 0 obj <> c) The law of the excluded middle: A is either A or not A. Deduction argues from the universal to the particular. 92 0 obj <>stream 1. endobj What role does emotion play in the critical thinking process? 7 0 obj Does logic have fundamental laws, if it does, what are they? What is the role of emotions in critical thinking? 0000001105 00000 n 1 �m�)�Y�����56Gnd \*P���h�%�. We can make sense of laws of logic and their properties. 0000001877 00000 n endobj 0000003538 00000 n If a student wants to go to college, then the student must study hard. x�b```f``������� 3 0 obj 9 0 obj 3. 0000000016 00000 n This content was COPIED from BrainMass.com - View the original, and get the already-completed solution here! endobj trailer How does one know the difference between persuasion and manipulation? 0000002936 00000 n