prairie vole monogamy hormones

Definitions of monogamy were applied to a single pair of partners or sometimes even to one individual within a pair. The regulation of aggression results in part from activity of vasopressin and the AVP V1a receptor in the anterior hypothalamus. In her previous post, JL mentioned that oxytocin promotes bonds and trust between parents and children and between couples in committed, monogamous relationships. In contrast to sexual behavior, social behaviors are inherently variable and must respond to a constantly changing social and physical environment. Not just skin deep: Neurons detect pleasurable touch, The amygdala: a full brain integrator in the face of fear. In prairie voles the density of oxytocin receptors (Insel and Shapiro, 1992) has been positively related to both the female's capacity to pair bond with a male partner and to show maternal behavior. Resident males that are selectively social with a long-term partner have higher oxytocin receptor density in this region compared to males adopting a non-monogamous social strategy (Ophir et al., 2012). In prairie voles, both during development and in adulthood, hormones originating in the gonads do not seem to be essential for pair bonding or male parental behavior (Carter et al., 1995; Carter and Roberts, 1997; Lansing et al., 2013). 0000023665 00000 n Behav. Understanding natural variations, within and across species, provides knowledge that has energized multidisciplinary sciences ranging from ethology and evolution (Ophir et al., 2008, 2012) to molecular biology (Bendesky et al., 2017), to psychology (Feldman, 2017) and emerging fields such as “precision” medicine. Comparatively high levels of testosterone are observed in other socially monogamous species, include California mice and prairie voles. Behav. (1997). In rodents declines in testosterone often coincide with a decrease in infanticidal aggression, presumably preparing the male to support, or at least not attack, his offspring (Elwood, 1977; Brown, 1986; Perrigo et al., 1991). Attempts by our group and others to modify the traits of social monogamy with injections of gonadal hormones generally were not successful (Carter and Roberts, 1997). These findings were replicated several times. Biologists later borrowed the term monogamy, and alternatives to monogamy, such as polygamy, as a means for categorizing mating systems and social relationships, usually between males and females. 23, 673–685. (2013). 0000005946 00000 n The Triune Brain in Evolution: Role in Paleocerebral Function. But we won’t be Cupid’s only targets; prairie voles will be falling in love, too! Sex Res. (2004). Horm. Voles from Illinois display relatively high rates of social monogamy (Getz et al., 1993; Roberts et al., 1998; Solomon and Jacquot, 2002), a low degree of sexual dimorphism, and high rates of paternal care (Roberts et al., 1998; Ophir et al., 2007). Physiol. %��E+��/��@�>5ȕ����k��i�v�%0������Ƿtl�x���C2 ��B\2��ey�$��Jo�����MsF{�M�OǜVƘF\p�@g˹`�f���&���r�m#������Ş�=��Ǟc�o��=��I۹4M�d��o�M�m��ea�J� Oxytocin and vasopressin: powerful regulators of social behavior. The repeated appearance of the cluster of behavioral and anatomical features that have been termed social monogamy raises an important basic question. A general theory of sexual differentiation. 12, 111–120. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.09.017. Both female and male prairie voles failed to show sexual preferences for familiar partners (vs. strangers). Although the origins of female aggression have not been well studied, preliminary studies did not implicate vasopressin (Bowler et al., 2002). Behav. This concept triggers the question as to why any individuals would take care of offspring other than their own. Neuroscience 162, 892–903. J. Comp. Of particular value to identifying the biology of social monogamy were within-genera comparisons of apparently monogamous species to closely related non-monogamous relatives. Dev. Hormonal correlates of paternal responsiveness in new and expectant fathers. The monogamous prairie voles have a higher level of receptors for vasopressin and oxytocin hormones. [27] doi: 10.1016/j.yfrne.2016.03.003, Bamshad, M., Novak, M. A., and Devries, G. J. Neurobiology of mother-infant interactions: experience and central nervous system plasticity across development and generations. doi: 10.1139/z04-142, Stalling, D. T. (1990). Vasopressin may play a role in aggression under both circumstances. 0000039174 00000 n The hormones of maternity, including birth and lactation, are foundational for the emergence of mammalian social behaviors. Monogamy and the prairie vole. This change in behavior is accompanied by a surge in plasma testosterone just prior to birth (Gubernick et al., 1994). Individual-specific fingerprints of human DNA. (2017). A similar pattern of vasopressin regulation of selective aggression is reported in P. californicus and P. maniculatus. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. Can. Both males and females are affected by oxytocin and vasopressin (Carter, 2017). Mated males eventually also reject unfamiliar females, even when the females are sexually receptive, helping to preserve the pair bond. Traditionally, we proclaim ourselves to be monogamous; i.e. Carter, C. S., and Keverne, E. B. When the field of behavioral neuroendocrinology emerged in the twentieth century most research in this area focused on steroid hormones, usually of gonadal or adrenal origins. doi: 10.1006/hbeh.2002.1840, Fleming, A. S., O'day, D. H., and Kraemer, G. W. (1999). Behav. Care of offspring is not unique to mammals (Maclean, 1990), but dependence of young on a mother, or an allomother, for nutrition and maternal-infant interactions (Hrdy, 2009) are universal features of mammalian life. 35, 1–50. In other cases, such as the regulation by mating of male aggression, steroids might be replaced by direct effects of peptide hormones such as vasopressin (Winslow et al., 1993). Working with Jessie Williams and Kenneth Catania, we developed a paradigm for measuring partner preferences in prairie voles that continues to be used (Williams et al., 1992; Young et al., 2011). In maternal behavior (Fleming et al., 1999), as in social monogamy, hormonal effects have been traced to effects on a network of brain regions that influence approach to others and reductions in social fear (Albers, 2015; Caldwell, 2017). Oxytocin and its sibling peptide, vasopressin primarily originate in the nervous system, but both have receptors throughout the body (Grinevich et al., 2016; Chini et al., 2017). Nebraska Symposium Motiv. 0000001070 00000 n Evol. As mentioned above, estrogens acting on ER-α, are considered a major factor in brain masculinization (Bodo and Rissman, 2006; Cushing, 2016). Horm. 7:363. doi: 10.1016/0031-9384(71)90315-5, Rosenberg, K. M., and Sherman, G. F. (1975). Oxytocin receptors in the nucleus accumbens facilitate “spontaneous” maternal behavior in adult female prairie voles. Vasopressin receptor blockade in the anterior hypothalamus suppresses aggression in hamsters. Evidence is at present incomplete; however, studies to date suggest that although prairie voles may be comparatively insensitive to testosterone they continue to be capable of responding to estrogen. Physiol. 0000000016 00000 n Sexual differentiation into masculinized and feminized physical phenotypes. The aromatization of testosterone to estradiol, then, which facilitates the effects of both oxytocin and vasopressin, might enable males to show high levels of paternal care toward young that are in at least some cases their own, while still engaging in selective aggression toward intruders.

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